Millennium Global, Inc.

Project Solutions for the Process, Power and Offshore Industries






Waste to Power Generation


A Green Technology Saving the Planet

Technical Description








Introductory Information


Millennium Global, Inc. (MGI) specializes in delivering custom solutions including state of the art waste to power generation systems. MGI provides systems that treat a wide range of commercial, municipal and industrial waste applications with the added benefit of generating electricity. MGI provides a turnkey system design, and construction for new grassroots facilities as well as revamps of existing systems with new technologies to improve the overall performance of the water treatment process.  Many of these systems are skid mounted for ease of design and installation and can be built modularly and shipped around the world. Larger systems are constructed on site, with as much infrastructure being modular and pre-constructed as possible.


The first part of any project requiring waste minimization and power generation applications is an initial assessment of its environmental impact, public health affects and economic feasibility. This requires an understanding of the overall scope of the project and the characterization of the industrial and municipal wastes to be utilized.  


Waste to Power System Overview


There a five (5) key sections to an integrated Waste-to-Power (WTP) system.


Waste Collection - Classification and Storage


First is the waste collection system. An well functioning WTP system will include a waste collection operation in close proximity to the power generation unit. Industrial and municipal waste is to be delivered to the waste collection site utilizing garbage collection trucks. Once at the collection site, the waste is manually classified and segregated by site workers. Items that are not suitable for burning are discarded. The baseline scope of the MGI WTP system starts at the battery limits of the waste collection area at the power generation site. MGI will also work with local municipalities and private businesses to assess the waste collection processes in place that bring that waste to the site. This includes a collection study and proposed collection routes, resources needed and equipment needed so that the delivery of waste to the generation site occurs in a timely fashion and that there is always surplus waste at the site to minimize downtime.


Waste Preparation - Drying & Shredding


Municipal and industrial waste contains varying degrees of water. It is necessary to remove this water from waste prior to injecting it into the waste conversion units. Water act as a quenching agent in the conversion units and reduce the overall efficiency of the system. Once waste is segregated, the usable portion must be dried. The first step is to allow ambient drying to remove bulk water from the waste. This process can range from several hours to a few days depending on the characteristics of the waste and it is for this reason that several days storage of collected waste is imperative to ensure ongoing system operation. Once the waste is dried in ambient conditions, it is fed via a conveyor system to rotary driers to drive off more bound water within the waste matrix.  Waste exiting the driers is now prepared for the conversion units. The waste material is introduced into the system through a continuous feed unit comprised of industrial shredders and conveyors customized to the type of waste or material to be processed.  The waste material then is conveyed into the system through a series of valves and gates that are synchronized to prevent unwanted oxygen or air from entering into the process chamber.





Waste Conversion - Pyrolytic Chamber


The waste conversion process is the first step in utilizing the stored heat value in the waste to generate electricity. The conversion unit typically utilizes a pyrolytic chamber to comprised of a thermally insulated outer housing of cylindrical design coaxially surrounding a three arch triangular retort, using the upper portion for generated gases to be transported, and the two bottom arches for the specially designed, proprietary screw assembly that convey the waste through the retort as pyrolysis occurs.  The reaction chamber is constructed of castable refractory material capable of reaching 2000° Fahrenheit with end flanges of high temperature, corrosive resistant alloy.  The space between the outer housing and the internal chamber contains a heat chamber (the radiant heat zone), which is heated by the first stage of our innovative thermal oxidizer.



Waste Conversion - Thermal Oxidizer


The first stage of the thermal oxidizer runs less than stoichiometric, while the second stage runs with an excess of air.  This staged process eliminates any possibility of flame impingement in the thermal reactor.  The oxidized gases are drawn through the waste heat boiler for generating steam in order to provide steam to the steam turbine generator.  The off gases from the waste heat boiler are drawn through a wet scrubber of corrosive resistant alloy for final discharge.  The thermal oxidizer is insulated to withstand temperatures of 2200° Fahrenheit.


Steam Generation - Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG)


The Heat Recovery Steam Generator, or HRSG, utilizes the synthetic gas (syngas) produced from the waste in the reaction chamber and the thermal oxidizer. The first state in the HRSG is what is referred to as a water tube (as opposed to a fire tube) type heat recovery unit. This refers to the process fluid, such as the steam or water being on the inside of the tube with the products of combustion being on the outside of the tube. The products of combustion are normally at or close to atmospheric pressure, therefore, the shell side is generally not considered to be a pressure vessel.


Definition of concepts and terminology used in discussions.


In the design of an HRSG, a baseline theoretical heat balance is required, which is based on the characteristics of the syngas entering the HRSG. This will provide a relationship between the tube side and shell side process. Prior to computing the heat balance, the tube side components which will make up our HRSG unit must be identified. Typically three primary coil types may be present, Evaporator, Superheater or Economizer in the HRSG design. When we refer to an Evaporator Section, this includes all the evaporator coils making up the total evaporator for a Pressure System. A pressure system includes all the components included in the various streams associated with that pressure level.


Evaporator Section


The most important component is the Evaporator Section, since this is the heart of the HRSG and without this coil or coils, efficient recovery would not be possible. The evaporator section segments include a bank of one or more one or more coils. In these coils, the effluent (water), passing through the tubes is heated to the saturation point for the pressure it is flowing.





Superheater Section

The Superheater Section of the HRSG is used to dry the saturated vapor being separated in the steam drum. In some units it may only be heated to little above the saturation point where in other units it may be superheated to a significant temperature for additional energy storage. The Superheater Section is normally located in the hotter gas stream, in front of the evaporator.

Economizer Section

The Economizer Section, sometimes called a preheater or preheat coil, is used to preheat the feedwater being introduced to the system to replace the steam(vapor) being removed from the system via the superheater or steam outlet and the water loss through blowdown. It is normally located in the colder gas downstream of the evaporator. Since the evaporator inlet and outlet temperatures are both close to the saturation temperature for the system pressure, the amount of heat that may be removed from the flue gas is limited due to the approach to the evaporator, known as the pinch which is discussed later, whereas the economizer inlet temperature is low, allowing the flue gas temperature to be taken lower.

Power Generation - Steam Turbine

The steam that is generated in the HRSG is the motive force for electricity generation in the steam turbine. The power generation portion of the system is a turbine generator (TG) set for on-site power and distributed energy and typically are sized in sizes from 0.5 MW to 100 MW. The steam turbine generator sets are industry standard equipment that have highly reliable uptimes and feature rugged designs that operate in numerous industrial sectors including waste-to-energy applications. The base design includes a complete turbine generator package, and MGI will work closely with business and municipal clients to ensure that all design and operational requirements are met. The turbine generators can be direct-drive or geared and depending on the specific application, solutions include a variety of configurations - condensing or non-condensing, single- or multi-valve, single- or double-automatic extraction, or mixed-pressure designs.  The generated electricity from the TG is now ready for connection to the client switchgear or municipal transmission lines via a power generation metering station at the battery limits of the Waste-to-Power site.

Effluent System


The pyrolytic chamber and thermal oxidizer have highly efficient conversion values and carbonized material (ash) is a byproduct of the combustion process. In addition, there may be some incombustible material that exits the units and these waste products need to be mitigated. Typically the effluent system consists of a dust collector (bag house) and a wet gas scrubber to ensure that no fugitive emissions exit the process.


Power Transmission


The transmission of power beyond the battery limits of the WTP site is typically the responsibility of the a municipal utility company. MGI works with utility companies on various levels to complete the overall power generation program. At the completion of the project and upon power generation start-up, MGI typically transitions into an operate and maintain function working in conjunction with the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) over power transmission. This functionality is accomplished through a power purchase agreement (PPA) with the utility.


Waste to Power Generation Benefits


Waste to Power Generation Solves Multiple Infrastructure Problems


·         Waste Minimization

o   Transforming the municipal and regional dumping of waste into an environmentally friendly method of removal and power generation.

o   Many Feed types can be used

§  Household waste, yard waste, wood, farm and crop waste

§  Medical and bio-hazard waste

·         Land Recovery

o   Eliminates the need to use valuable land for landfills

·         Public Health

o   Prompt waste utilization minimizes the spread of disease

·         Power Generation      

o   Most importantly, electricity is generated for local use or connection to regional transmission lines.

The Pyrolysis / Electric Generation Process


·         An Ultra-low emission process

·         Zero Oxygen Environment

·         Waste vaporized into Syngas

o   Methane, ethane, propane, butane

·         Syngas feeds boilers to generate steam

·         Waste heat is recovered to enhance the process

·         Steam is used to drive turbine to generate electricity

·         Transformers

·         Switchgear supply power to Transmission lines

Electric Generation - The Pyrolysis Process


·         Mature, Well-Established Technology Originally Developed in the1800’s.

·         Recent Advances have Brought Costs and Size Down Considerably.

·         The Technology is Safe, Efficient and Can Use a Multitude of Feedstocks.

·         Typical unit sizes

o   10 Ton per Day Unit

o   50 Ton per Day Unit

o   125 Ton per Day Unit

·         Packaged Equipment with Modular design

·         Allows easy transport, installation and minimizes start-up time

·         Designed for easy expansion



The BurnFree Conversion System (BFCS)


Typical Process Flow Diagram







Typical Equipment Layout and General Arrangement



Typical Project Schedule & Cost


Each Waste-to-Power project has unique characteristics ranging from the heating content of the waste, the percentage of municipal and industrial waste utilized and the degree of supplemental gas fired fuel source necessary to achieve sustained operations. To this end, a formal cost estimate is performed during the process design phase of each project. The following typical schedule and cost information is provided for comparison only. Upon project award, the detailed process design and +/-10% cost estimate will be generated.


10 Ton per Day Unit


·         Process Design - 3 months

·         Site Preparation – 2 months

·         Equipment Fabrication – 8 months

·         Start-up on test propane – 8 months

·         Power generation from waste – 20 months total

·         Project Cost

o   $20-22 MM US

·         Profitability

·                     Payback within 7 years

50 Ton per Day Unit


·         Process Design - 3 months

·         Site Preparation – 2 months

·         Equipment Fabrication – 10 months

·         Start-up on test propane – 12 months

·         Power generation from waste – 22 months total

·         Project Cost

o   $40-50 MM US

·         Profitability

o   Payback within 3-5 years

125 Ton per Day Unit


·         Process design - 4 months

·         Site Preparation – 4 months

·         Equipment Fabrication – 10 months

·         Start-up on test propane – 12 months

·         Power generation from waste – 24 months total

·         Project Cost

o   $120-140 MM US

·         Profitability

o   Payback within 2-3 years



The MGI Difference


Millennium Global Inc (MGI) is in a unique position to provide quality services to our customers since we only employ seasoned professionals with proven track records. This allows us to execute in a highly efficient manner by minimizing resources and commanding a smaller overhead. This allows Millennium to pass on these savings to our customers. Millennium’s uniqueness is its ability to integrate design, construction and operability principles to deliver an overall facilities solution. Millennium stands behind this commitment by executing project management and construction on a turn-key basis. From the smallest feasibility study to major turn-key construction projects, through the life of the operation, Millennium has a proven record of achieving results and servicing repeat clients worldwide.


MGI has a global reach and has a focus of engaging in humanitarian projects that help provide infrastructure in developing countries. Our executive team has decades of experience in all facets of project management, operations and international consultancy and developing local teams to take ownership of new operations. In developing countries our approach is to engage local residents in both skilled and unskilled positions so that they gain ownership of the infrastructure being introduced in the country. The MGI team will provide proper training and oversight in key positions with an ultimate view of having a significant portion of the skilled and managerial workforce being local residents.


MGI typically engages in the following aspects of overall project, program and business development:


·         Global Project and Program Management

·         Project Engineering Feasibility & Economic Analysis Studies  

·         Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) Capabilities

·         Environmental Engineering & Permitting 

·         Project Funding & Financing Options; including Equity Investment, Debt Financing, Lease and Municipal Lease

·         Shared/Guaranteed Savings Program with No Capital Investment from Qualified Clients 

·         Project Commissioning 

·         3rd Party Ownership and Project Development

·         Long-term Service Agreements

·         Operations & Maintenance via PPA agreements 

·         Green Tag (Renewable Energy Credit, Carbon Dioxide Credits, Emission Reduction Credits) Brokerage Services; Application and Permitting